Angie's Cooking Forum

Cooking-related stuff to help the busy cook including Food Substitutions, Food Equivalents, Glossary of Cooking Terms, Weights & Measures, and Oven Temperatures

 

Food Substitutions

Allspice(1 tsp)
1 tsp. cinnamon plus 1/8 tsp. ground cloves.
Apple Pie Spice
4 parts cinnamon, 1 part nutmeg and 1 part ginger.
Baking Powder (1 tsp)
1 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar.
Balsamic Vinegar (1 tbsp)
1 Tbsp cider vinegar.
Bouquet Garni
Equal measures of thyme, parsley and crushed bay leaf; OR Equal measures of thyme, chervil and crushed bay leaf; OR Equal measures of basil, marjoram, and summer savory.
Bread Crumbs(1/4 cup)
1/4 cup finely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes or quick-cooking oats.
Butter(1 lb)
7/8 Cup solid shortening plus 1/2 tsp. salt
Buttermilk/Sour Milk
(1 cup)
1 Tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup. Let stand 5 minutes before using. Or use 1 cup plain yogurt.
Capers(1 tbsp)
1 Tbsp chopped green olives.
Chili Seasoning
2 parts chili powder
1 part paprika
Chocolate - Semisweet (1 square)
1 oz unsweetened baking chocolate plus 1 Tbsp sugar.
Chocolate - Unsweetened (1 square)
3 Tbsp baking cocoa plus 1 Tbsp shortening or margarine.
Cornstarch (1 tbsp)
2 Tbsp flour or 4 tsp quick-cooking tapioca.
Corn Syrup - Light (1 cup)
1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water.
Corn Syrup - Dark (1 cup)
1 cup light corn syrup; 3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup molasses; or 1 cup maple-flavored syrup.
Cream, heavy (1 cup)
2/3 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter.
Curry Powder
Combine equal parts coriander, cumin, pepper, turmeric, and ginger; 4 parts coriander, 2 parts tumeric, 2 parts cumin 1 part ginger.
Eggs (1 large)
2 egg whites; or 1/4 cup store-bought egg whites; or 2 egg yolks (for custard or puddings); or 2 egg yolks plus 1 Tbsp water (for cookies or bars); or 1 tsp. cornstarch;. or 4 extra tbs. of whatever liquid was used in the recipe.
Flour - All-purpose (1 cup)
1 cup plus 2 Tbsp cake flour.
Flour - Cake (1 cup)
1 cup minus 2 Tbsp all-purpose flour.
Flour - Self-rising (1 cup)
1 cup all-purpose flour plus
1 1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt.
Garlic, finely chopped
(1 medium clove)
1/8 tsp garlic powder or 1/4 tsp instant minced garlic or 1/2 tsp garlic salt.
Gingerroot, grated or finely chopped (1 tsp)
3/4 tsp ground ginger.
Herbs, chopped, fresh
(1 tbsp)
3/4 to 1 tsp dried herbs.
Herbes de Provence
4 parts thyme, 4 parts savory,
2 parts lavender 1 part rosemary.
Honey(1 cup)
1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water or liquid used in recipe.
Ketchup
1 cup of tomato sauce, 1 1/4 cups brown sugar, 2 tbs. vinegar, 1/4 tsp. cinnamon, pinch of ground cloves and allspice.
Leeks, sliced (1/2 cup)
1/2 cup sliced shallots or green onions.
Lemon, medium 1
1 tsp. grated rind plus 2 tbs. lemon juice
Lemon Juice, fresh (1 tbsp)
1 Tbsp bottled lemon juice or white vinegar.
Lemon Peel, grated (1 tsp)
1 tsp dried lemon peel.
Milk (1 cup)
1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water; or nonfat dry milk prepared as directed on package with 2 1/2 tsp melted butter added.
Molasses (1 cup)
1/2 cup honey (flavor will be milder).
Mushrooms, fresh
(1 cup cooked)
1 can (4 oz) mushroom stems and pieces, drained.
Mushrooms (1/2 pound)
4 oz. canned mushroom caps or 1 1/2 oz dried mushrooms.
Mustard (1 Tbsp)
1 tsp ground mustard (dry).
Onion, small 1
1 tbs. instant minced or 1 tsp. onion powder.
Orange Peel, grated (1 tsp)
1 tsp dried orange peel.
Oregano (1 tsp)
1 tsp. marjoram.
Poultry Seasoning
Equal parts sage, thyme, oregano and marjoram.
Pumpkin Pie Spice
4 parts cinnamon, 2 parts ginger, 1 part nutmeg, 1 part allspice and dash of cloves.
Red Pepper Sauce 
(3 or 4 drops)
1/8 tsp cayenne pepper
Seasoning Salt
1 cup salt, 2 1/4 teaspoons paprika, 2 teaspoons dry mustard, 1 teaspoon dried oregano, 1 teaspoon garlic powder, and 1/2 teaspoon onion powder.
Sesame Seeds (1 tbsp)
1 Tbsp finely chopped blanched almonds.
Shortening, melted (1 cup)
1 cup salad oil (cannot be substituted for 1 cup solidshortening)
Sour Cream (1 cup)
1 cup plain yogurt.
Sugar, brown, packed
(1 cup)
1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 Tbsp molasses or dark corn syrup.
Sugar, granulated
(1 cup)
1 cup light brown sugar (packed) or 2 cups powdered sugar.
Sugar, superfine
Blend regular granulated sugar in the blender.
Tomato Paste (1/2 cup)
1 cup tomato sauce cooked uncovered till reduced to l/2 cup.
Tomato Sauce (2 cups)
3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water.
Tomatoes, canned (1 cup)
About 1 1/3 cups cut-up fresh tomatoes, simmered 10 min.
Vanilla Extract
Grated lemon rind, orange rind, cinnamon or nutmeg combined with a small amount of the liquid called for in the recipe to make up the amount of vanilla extract specified in the recipe.
Whipping Cream (1 cup)
1 cup frozen (thawed) whipped topping or 1 cup prepared whipped topping mix.
Wine, Red (1 cup)
1 cup apple cider or beef broth.
Wine, White(1 cup)
1 cup apple juice, apple cider or chicken broth.
Yeast, regular or quick active dry (1 pkg or 1/4 oz)
2 1/4 tsp regular or quick active dry; or 1 package (6 oz) compressed cake yeast.

 

 

Check out this cute recipe for a happy home

 

Food Equivalents

 

Apples (1 pound)=3 cups pared, sliced

Bananas (3 medium) =1 1/2 cups mashed

Berries (1 pint)=1 3/4 cups

Bread (1 slice) =1/2 cups crumbs

Cabbage (1/2 pound) =4 cups shredded

Carrots (1 large)=1 cup shredded

Celery (1 large stalk)=1 cup diced

Cheese (1/4 pound)=1 cup shredded

Cherries (1 pound)=2 1/2 cup pitted

Corn (1 small ear)=1/2 cup kernels

Crackers, Graham (1 cup)=14 squares

Grapes (1 pound)=3 cups

Kiwi (1)=1/3 cup sliced

Lemon (1)=3 tablespoons juice

Lime (1)=2 tablespoons juice

Mango (1 pound)=3/4 cup sliced

Melon (1 pound)=1 cup cubed

Onion (1 medium)=3/4 cup chopped

Orange (1 medium)=1/3 cup juice and 2 T grated peel

Peaches (1 pound)=2 cups sliced

Pears (1 pound)=2 cups sliced

Pecans (1 pound shelled)=4 cups

Peppers (1 large)=1 cup chopped

Pineapple (1 medium)=3 cups cubed

Tomato (1 large)=1 cup chopped

 

 

Glossary of Cooking Terms

 

Al dente
Pasta that's cooked just till firm to the touch. There should be slight resistent when you bite into it. Not overcooked
Allspice
A single spice whose flavor is reminiscent of a blend of cloves, cinnamon, juniper berries and pepper. It is processed from the unripe fruit of an evergreen tree indigenous to South America, and extensively grown in Jamaica.
Anise
A herb, available both ground and in seed form, whose flavor is reminiscent of licorice. Used for flavoring curries, soups, cakes, breads, candies, desserts, nonalcoholic beverage, and such liqueurs as anisette.
Arrowroot
A white powder, extracted from the root of a West Indian plant, used as a thickening agent for sauces, fruit pie fillings and glazes, and puddings. Recipes made with Arrowroot thicken at a lower temperature than those made using cornstarch. If a recipe calls for cornstarch and you want to use Arrowroot instead, just subtititue 2 teaspoons of Arrowroot for 1 tablespoon of cornstarch

 

Bake
To cook using dry heat by placing foods in an oven (covered or uncovered, whatever your choice), under coals, or on a heated stone..
Baking Powder
Used as a leavening agent in preparing baked goods. Consists of a carbonate, an acid substance, and starch or flour. Check the expiration date as baking powder loses its leavening power over time. Instead of discarding when it becomes old just use it as a deodorizer in your refrigerator.
Baking Soda
A leavening agent which must be combined with an acidic liquid to achieve results. Sour milk, sour cream, buttermilk, yogurt, molasses, orange or lemon juice produce good results
Basil
Herb which is widely used in Italian dishes, most particularly with tomato-based entrees. Basil is used to make pesto and is also an excellent seasonin for chicken and fish. Plant basil between your tomato plants to repel all sorts of tomato pests.
Baste
To moisten and improve the flavor of foods (usually meats) by brushing on, drizzling or spooning over pan drippings, fruit juices, sauces, etc.
Bay Leaf
An aromatic leaf that comes from bay laurel trees and used to flavor soups, stews, meat and vegetable dishes. Place the whole leaf right in the dish you're preparing but be sure to remove the bay leaf before serving.
Beat
To rapidly stir food in a circular motion using a spoon or fork, rotary egg beater or electric mixer. (one minute in an electric mixer equals about 100 strokes with a spoon or fork)
Blanch
To boil or steam foods briefly in order to either remove the skins (tomatoes, nuts, etc), whiten, or prepare food for freezing by stopping the enzymatic action.
Blend
To mix ingredients together until thoroughly combined.
Boil
To heat liquids until bubbles form on the surface and steam forms.
Bouquet Garni
A mixture of herbs that is either tied together or enclosed in a porous container and cooked with a dish but removed before serving. The herbs most often used include equal measures of thyme, parsley and crushed bay leaf; however a bouquet garni can also consist of equal measures of thyme, chervil and crushed bay leaf OR equal measures of basil, marjoram, and summer savory.
Braising
A method of cooking foods (most often used for meats) by quickly browning in oil and then cooking slowly in liquid (wine, stock, etc) in a covered pot .
Bread
To dip foods into a liquid (beaten eggs, milk, etc) then coat food with bread crumbs.
Broil
Using intense heat to cook food (usually meats) by placing it directly under a broiler or on a grill. This is a low-fat way to cook as the fat drips away.
Brown
To cook food quickly (usually meats) over high heat by either frying or broiling until the surface browns sealing in all the succulent juices

 

Carmelize
To melt either sugar or sugary foods by cooking slowly over low heat until the contents become browned. Be carful not to burn
Chop
To cut food either into small chucks (finely chopped) or large chunks (coarsely chopped).
Cilantro
Leaves of coriander used as a flavoring or garnish
Coddle
To cook food slowly in water keeping the water just below boiling.
Condensed Milk
Evaporated milk to which a lot of sugar has been added
Confectioners' Sugar
A refined finely-powdered sugar, often used in frostings.
Coriander
The seed of a plant in the parsley family with a flavor reminiscent of a blend between sage and lemon.
Cornstarch
Starch made from corn and used in foods as a thickening agent and in making corn syrup and sugars. To prevent lumping be sure it's thoroughly mixed in a cold liquid before adding.
Cream
To mix an ingredient or combination of ingredients until soft, smooth and well-blended. Usually the ingredients contain butter or shortening and sugar
Cream of Tartar
The ingredient left behind from wine fermentation. Used as the main ingredient in baking powder and to stabilize beaten egg whites.
Cube
To cut foods into uniform 1/2"to 1" cubes.
Cut in
To mix butter, shortening, etc., into dry ingredients by using a pastry blender or two knives.
Curry Powder
A condiment consisting of several pungent ground spices including cayenne pepper, turmeric, and fenugreek.

 

Dash
A very small quantity measuring three drops to 1/4 teaspoon.
Deep Fry
To cook food by placing in enough hot oil cover the food completely
Double Boiler
A cooking method consisting of two saucepans fitting together so that the contents of the upper pan can be cooked or heated by boiling water in the lower one.
Dredge
To coat food with flour, bread crumbs, etc.
Deglaze
The process used to make a great-tasting sauce using the browned bits from the bottom of the roasting pan by heating a little bit of wine or stock and stirring to loosen the brown bits.
Dust
To sprinkle lightly with sugar or flour.

 

Emulsify
To bind together substances which do not normally mix, such as oil and water. Egg yolk is a commonly used for this purpose.
Evaporated Milk
Unsweetened milk concentrated by partial evaporation.

 

Fillet
To cut the bones from meat or fish.
Fry
To cook food in hot fat over medium to high heat
Flake
To break food into small pieces, usually done with a fork
Fold
To combine two ingredients, usually a heavier ingredient (whipping cream) with a lighter ingredient, (egg white). Using a rubber spatula, lift the heavier mixture from the bottom and blend with the lighter mixture on top..

 

Garnish
edible ornaments to enhance the appearance of food
Grate
To shred hard food by rubbing it against a grater.
Grater
A kitchen utensil with different sized sharp-edged holes, for rubbing off small particles of any hard food..
Grease
To prevent foods from sticking by lightly coating a pan with butter, shortening, cooking spray, etc.
Grill
To cook food on a rack over hot coals or other heat source
Grind
To transform food into pieces ranging from small (fine grind) to large (coarse grind) using a food processor or grinder.

 

Julienne
To cut food into matchstick-sized strips

 

Knead
To mix dough on a floured surface by pressing the dough down with the palm of your hands then folding it over itself; repeat the process until the dough is smooth and elastic.

 

Leaven
Adding a leaving agent such as yeast, baking powder or baking soda to ingredients in order to allow either dough or batter to rise.

 

Marinade
A savory usually acidic sauce in which meat, fish, or vegetable is soaked to enrich its flavor or to tenderize it.
Mince
To finely chop food, resulting in tiny pieces.
Mix
To combine ingredients until smooth and evenly distributed.

 

Panboil
To cook uncovered over high heat in a pre-heated, lightly-greased heavy pan, constantly removing any fat that accumulates.
Parboil
Partially cooking food in boiling water, stock, etc for a few minutes just to tenderize the food, cooking is normally completed using another method.
Pare
To remove skin from fruits and vegetables using a knife.
Pinch
a measure of dry ingredients that is normally the amount that can be held between the thumb and forefinger, usually much less than 1/8 teaspoon
Poach
To cook food slowly in simmering water, milk, stock, etc.
Puree
foods usually fruits or vegetables reduced to a smooth, thick consistency using either a blender, food processor or a sieve.

 

Reduce
To boil a liquid, uncovered, until the volume is reduced by evaporation, which thickens and intensifies the flavor.
Roast
To cook food in an oven, using dry heat.; placing food on a spit before a fire; or surrounding food with hot embers, sand or stones.

 

Sauté
to cook quickly over high heat in an open frying pan with a small amount of butter, oil or cooking spray, turning food frequently
Scald
To heat milk to just below the boiling point.
Sear
To cook at very high heat for a short period of time in order to brown meat and seal the surface ensuring that the juices are trapped within.
Shred
To cut or tear food into long, thin strips
Sift
To pass dry ingredients, usually flour and baking powder, salt, etc., through a fine-meshed strainer or sifter to blend ingredients thoroughly and remove larger pieces thereby lightening the texture of the mixture.
Simmer
To cook in liquid just below the boiling point..
Soy Sauce
A sauce containing soybeans, wheat, and salt. Used in marinades and sauces or as a condiment for white rice.
Stew
To cook food slowly and for a long period of time using a small amount of liquid in a covered pan or pot
Stir-fry
To cook food quickly over high heat with a small amount of oil using a skillet or wok, being sure to constantly stir ingredients
Strain
To remove solid particles from a mixture or liquid by pouring through a colander or sieve.

 

Tahini
A smooth, oily paste made from sesame seeds
Toast
To brown with dry heat in an toaster or oven.
Toss
To blend foods together by gently turning the pieces over until the ingredients are well mixed

 

Whip
To add air and volume to food by beating rapidly using a wire whisk, beater or electric mixer until mixture is light and fluffy.
Whisk
A wire kitchen utensil used for mixing dry ingredients together
Worcestershire Sauce
a pungent sauce consisting of soy sauce, vinegar, molasses, and garlic

 

Zest
A small amount of the grated rind or thin outer skin of any type of citrus fruit (orange and lemon being the most common) used as flavoring especially in baking.

 

 

Weights & Measurements:

 

1 1/2 teaspoons=1/2 tablespoon
3 teaspoons=1 tablespoon
4 tablespoons=1/4 cup
5 1/3 tablespoons=1/3 cup
16 tablespoons=1 cup
8 tablespoons=1/2 cup
10 2/3 tablespoons=2/3 cup
12 tablespoons=3/4 cup
2 tablespoons=1/8 cup
1 cup=8 fluid ounces
1 cup=1/2 pint
2 cups=1 pint
4 cups=1 quart
2 pints=1 quart
4 quarts=1 gallon

 

Oven Temperatures

 

Very slow oven - 200-250 degrees F.
Slow oven - 250-325 degrees F.
Moderately slow oven - 325-350 degrees F.
Moderate oven - 350-375 degrees F.
Moderately hot oven - 375-400 degrees F.
Hot oven - -400-450 degrees F.
Very Hot oven - 450-500 degrees F.

 

 

 

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